Tube Stations

[Additional photos and comments  are in the Stations Picture Gallery 2 ]

Since the closing of Manhattan Transfer there are only thrHarrison Station by Jon Bell: Hudson Tubes / PATH Trains / H&M RRee surface stations in the system: Newark which is located inside Amtrak's Newark Pennsylvania Station but still open air; click here for a short video of Newark station with a PATH PA train arriving. Harrison, a very simple shed-like structure; [as seen in these two enlargeable pictures by Jon Bell]. The west end of the Harrison Station is formed by the bridges crossing the Passaic River to the east end of the Newark Station. [Click the enlargeable picture by chuchubob]Passaic River Bridges between Harrison and Newark stations: PATH trains / Hudson Tubes / H&M RR and also click here for a Youtube video of the Harrison Station.

The third open air station is Journal Square. Hudson Tubes: Journal Square Station  in the 1930s Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RREver since it was opened on April 14, 1912 (as Summit Avenue station), Journal Square station had been and is the heart of the Tubes, handling in the mid-twenties 1,000 tube trains a day. It was also the central transfer point to the extensive Public Service trolley system as well as to many private bus lines. The station had been the heart of major real estate development plans in the mid 1920s which were in great part, but not completely, realized. For example there was to be a transfer Journal Square Concourse as planned 1925: Hudson Tubes / PATH train / H&M RRstation with the PRR at the west end of the Tube station.

Another aspect of the plan that was realized but only partially was "The Concourse" running along the south side of the H&M / PRR cut and connecting Summit Avenue with the Boulevard. In this expandable planning drawing, The Concourse is a very wide pedestrian way. The reality turned out to be substantially narrower, reaching only Sip Avenue, no specialJournal Square passenger statistics in 1925: Hudson Tubes / PATH train / H&M RR entrance to the station and with little sweep or grandeur.

As part of the publicity campaign the boosters released press releases such as this one.Journal Square Wind Shelter on the platforms: PATH trains Hudson Tubes H&M RR

Although it was possible to wait on the mezzanine and go down to the platform only as a train was coming in, after many passenger complaints, the H&M erected this wind blocking waiting room on the platform itself In the late 1940s. There was some "freshening up"  of the station in the early 1950s, including the installation of escalators on March 3, 1952. 

After the transfer of the Tubes from private to public ownership, the Port Authority unveils plans for Transportation Center at Journal Square on July 18, 1968, including a new PATH Tube station with longer platforms for 10-car trains, a bus terminal, and a 10-story office building. The PA demolished the original station (shown here above) and constructed a totally new station with a modernistic high rise located above it. The demolition/construction work started on November 20, 1968 under the name "Journal Square Transportation Center". This new station complex (see the clickable image below) was laid out to combine the tube station, a major local bus station, shopping center, office building, parking garage and operations center for the Tubes (renamed PATH). [The high  yellow building in the upper left is the movie palace,  Loew's Jersey, which still stands and which is now being restored to act as both a movie theater and a venue for live music.] Expand image and then click 5. Tube Stations to return . From the Loews website: The Loew’s Jersey opened its polished brass doors on September 28, 1929. Journal Square, Jersey City was a regional crossroads with a stop on the “Tubes” subway line that ran between New York and Newark; scores of regional bus and trolley lines also converged there. Two other theatres were already doing business in Journal Square, along with some of the area’s finest shops and restaurants. Built at what was then the impressive sum of 2 million dollars [$21 million 2002 dollars] , the Loew’s was accurately called as “the most lavish temple of entertainment in New Jersey”. It was also one of the state’s biggest theatres, with just under 3,100 seats. And the Loew’s was also one of the best equipped theatres of its day. (More in "History of the Theatre")

PATH Hudson Tubes Journal Square train through Bergen Hll 2000 Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RRUnfortunately, the planners paid little attention to the economic and social structure of the neighborhood and the complex turned into a windswept economic and social disaster, destroying scores of small businesses and bringing about a desert landscape populated by municipal and other governmental offices.

 Although the train platforms are on a lower level and were not directly affected by the construction above, the new building cut off light and turned the platforms into perpetual night. Due to sloppiness in oversight of the construction and the construction materials, the roof covering the platforms began collapsing a few years after construction and had to be rebuilt. Attempts are being made during 2001 to refurbish the station, paying special attention to improving the lighting. [In the expandable picture above the brown rock of the Palisades through which the Pennsylvania and Hudson and Manhattan - as well as the Erie and the DL&W - had to Journal Square platform level after 2002/3 lighting improvements PATH trains / Hudson Tubes / H&M RR © 2003 blast their way is clearly visible.]

A major lighting improvement in 2002-2003 reversed some of the damage caused by the initial construction and has made a positive change in the appearance of the platform levels of the station.

Entry is made on a mezzanine level connected by escalators to the platforms and to the street; from the mezzanine level there is direct access to a large public parking garage as well as to the local bus station. The Journal Square half of the mezzanine entry level PATH trains / Hudson Tubes / H&M RR © 2003 view of the semi-circular mezzanine shows only half of the entry turnstiles.

On the original plans for the railroad the first station east of Journal Square  was to be  "Newark Avenue Station".  But instead it was opened on September 6,Grove Street entrance PATH trains / Hudson Tubes / H&M RR © 2003 1908  as Grove-Henderson. Until the 1980s the entry for Grove Street was not really a building but rather a plain simple structure underneath the Pennsylvania Railroad's viaducted mainline leading to Exchange Place. This was parallel to the plainness of most of the uptown Manhattan entries which were usually amalgamated into surrounding structures. For years, almost decades, after the PRR stopped using the viaduct, Grove Street's entrance remained the same as it had been but its plainness, long hidden by the viaduct, was striking. A new simple and rather elegant glass and steel frame entry pavilion now leads into the station.

On June 22, 1950 Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Groove Street with stainless stell cladding PATH / Hudson Tubes / H&M RRunveiled the  modernized Grove Street Station in Jersey City. Grove Street station was the first station [and in fact, the only station during period of private H&M operation] to undergo modernization, into a modified sleek Art Moderne design with stainless steel cladding on the columns and indirect florescent lighting. 

Since then the station has been changed yet again, now into the homogenized style PATH has been using for most of its refurbished stations. Here, probably from the time of the initial renovation in the 1950s the ornate capitals are missing, with riveted steel segments taking their Grove Street  Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RR © B. Klapouchy  2001place. 

The station originally had two exits, a northerly one to Grove Street and a south one to Henderson Street. That Henderson Street exit was closed down after the PA takeover but because of the upsurge in ridership plans were developed for a new exit from the station.  Expand image and then click 5. Tube Stations to return Additional information on the expansion plans for Grove Street can be found here. The re-done second exit opened in May 2005.

Click for fall size image, then click 5. Tube Stations to returnThe underground stations Grove Street, Pavonia/Newport, Christopher Street and 9th Street, all resemble each other very closely: two tubes which spread out to leave a narrow central island platform between them. The best stations for viewing the cast iron ring tube construction and the resulting relatively narrow central platforms are Christopher Street and Ninth Street. 

Unfortunately, the modernization of the originally round stone columns supporting the roof of the platform into clad quadratic columns is aesthetically jarring. This clickable illustration of Ninth Street station (opened February 5, 1908) shows thePATH / Hudson Tubes 9th Street Station, Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RR © B. Klapouchy 2001 clash of the original curves of the tunnels with the straight line construction put in by the Port Authority renovations. Ninth Street Station by PATH Train / Hudson Tubes / H&M RRThe clickable  image to the right from gives a detail of the iron construction work. 

The pedestrian exit itself from the Ninth Street station is also a tunnel, a long and curving tunnel. As is the case with most of the Tube stations in Manhattan, the Ninth Street entrance is not too clearly marked, since almost all stations had originally been entered through the surrounding commercial buildings, providing passengers with direct entrance to many retail stores. (Also see Gallery 2: Stations.) Originally one line of the Hudson & Manhattan was to run over to the east Side of Manhattan and connect with the then-new IRT at Astor Place. The plans were not carried out except for a short stub leading off to the east from the north end of the Ninth Street station. Ninth Street Proposed Extension to IRT Subway: PATH Trains / Hudson Tubes / H&M RR A schematic of the track work for this aborted line is found in Paul Carleton's Hudson & Manhattan Railroad Revisited

One exception to this usual entry way is that of the Christopher Street Stairwell; Hudson Tubes / PATH trains / Hudson & Manhattan RR; Click to expand and then use browser back button to return to textChristopher Street station (also opened February 5, 1908). Like Ninth Street it is center platform station where the two tubes have spread out; it's been modernized the same way as Ninth Street. Its one exit is a narrow stairway with several curves. Theoretically the stair way can hold four people abreast but when the passengers move it is difficult to utilize the full width of the stairway.Christopher Street entrance in own building; Hudson Tunnels; Hudson Tubes / PATH trains / Hudson & Manhattan RR; click to enlarge and then use browser back button to return to text

What sets Christopher Street apart not only from Ninth Street but from all the other uptown stations is its entry way. The entrance is free standing in its own building, not merely a part of another building. The recently restored iron and glass marquis displays the older "Hudson Tunnels"  name. David Pirman's photograph of the top of the building shows the company's original name, Hudson & Manhattan, clearly.



Christopher Street entrance canopy Hudson Tubes / PATH / Hudson & Manhattan RRSomething else unique about Christopher Street is its neighborhood. Every other Manhattan station is in a commercial area. Christopher Street, although it has many stores and some very light industry, is still basically a residential neighborhood. When it was opened, although only 2 blocks from the North River piers of such ocean carriers as Norwegian American and French Lines, it also was a working class residential neighborhood. Today it is still strongly residential but with a much wealthier level of residents. Additional information on the construction plans for additional exits at Ninth Street and Christopher Street can be found here. 

14th Street Capital Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RR © B. Klapouchy 2001 The stations at 14th Street (opened February 25, 1908) and 23rd Street (opened June 15, 1908) use side platforms instead of central ones and the north/south tunnels are separated from one another by a wall. At 14th Street the capitals, as in the clickable image to the right, are generic and do not display a letter or digit specifically designating the station as 14th Street.

A peculiarity of 23rd Street station is that one has to first  descend from the station before going up to the street. This is  related to the Sixth Avenue subway which was built after the Tubes and whose tracks run on both outer sides of the Tube tunnels. With the recent expansion of the e-industry around the Flatiron Building and Madison Square the 23rd Street station has experienced a surge in passengers, a 9.4% increase in 1999.

PATH Hudson Tubes Newport Pavonia stationPavonia/Newport  station (opened  on August 2, 1909 as "Erie" and then until May 1988 "Pavonia Avenue") has one center platform as well as one side platform; the extra platform had been required by the large numbers of passengers in the days when the Erie Railroad Terminal stood above this station. Even as recently as the late 1940s up to 32 commuter and long distance trains an hour were running into and out of the terminal. A palimpsest of the Erie days can still be seen on the capitals of the station columns which display the "E" of the Erie Railroad [see the clickable image below]. Pavonia Newport as a PATH station; the E on the capital is a reminder of the Erie Railroad whose main terminal stood here in Jersey City.  Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RR © B. Klapouchy 2001

The H&M station at Erie was not as closely integrated into the railroad station as the Tubes stations at Hoboken [Lackawanna Railroad] and Exchange Place [Pennsylvania Railroad] were. There was a substantial underground walk from the Tubes station to the Erie station. 

Under the name "the "travelator" the H&M installed a  pedestrian beltway in this Tubes station on May 24, 1954. This was two decades in advance of such conveyances appearing in airports throughout the world.  The travelator was basically a  227 foot moving sidewalk running on a 10% ascending grade  in the passage leading from the platform mezzanine level to the Erie Railroad Station. 

But, unfortunately,  the conveyor went into service in 1954, just Entrance to the tubes at Erie/Pavonia from the abandoned Erie Terminal c. 1970 Joseph Korman Collectiontwo years before the Erie abandoned its terminal in Jersey City and moved to the Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken. In 1960 the small New York Susquehanna & Western Railroad ceased its operations at the Erie Terminal which was ripped down immediately afterwards. As a result, the number of passengers using the Erie (Tube) Station sank sharply and suddenly: from 20,000 a day to 300 a day (in 1980) and there no longer was a purpose for the conveyor. From the Joseph Korman Collection is this view of the entrance to the Erie tube station from the abandoned Erie Terminal c. 1970. Note the similarity of the kiosk design to that of the IRT in Manhattan.

Pavonia Station photographed by_wayne_whitehorn.jpg (100980 bytes)For years this tube station acted only as a transfer station from one line to another. Expand image and then click 5. Tube Stations to return The construction on the Jersey City bank of the river of the Newport development  with residences, office space and a major indoor shopping center has reversed the trend and the station is now a normal one. In fact, in 1999 the number of passengers using the station grew at the fastest rate of the entire system: up 7% to 3½ million passengers, while in 2000 the number increased by an additional 14%. On a daily basis riders increased from the 300 a day in 1980 to 8,750 in 1996,  11,000 in 1999 and 13,000 in 2001. 

Newly re-opened platform at Pavonia: Hudson Tubes PATH trains H&M RRThe large crowds entering and leaving the station while the downtown line was out of operation after the Islamic terrorist attacks sped up plans to re-open the second passenger platform in September 2003. This view is on the newly re-opened platform, looking northwards in the direction of Hoboken and the uptown junction.Pavonia Newport announcement of  passenger tunnel re-opening; Hudson Tubes / PATH trains / Hudson & Manhattan RR

Along with Hoboken, 33rd Street and Hudson Terminal, Erie had been designed with an "extra" platform so that passengers could board and alight from the same train, using different platforms to speed the crowd flow. Partly to accommodate the steep increase in ridership [even before the 2001 terrorist attacks affected the system], and partly to comply with the federal ADA, the second platform at Pavonia [Erie], long out of public use, was re-opened for service in 2002. [This video of the Pavonia/Erie Station on Google was made from the re-opened platform.] This has also brought about the re-opening of the second Pavonia passenger tunnel; there is stillPATH Hudson Tubes Newport Pavonia  Station pasenger tunnel © B. Klapouchy 2001 Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RR © B Klapouchy 2001 a long walk through the curving tunnels from the platforms to the escalators that lead to the street, as can be seen in the clickable image to the right.




The station's exterior is now a simple Pavonia Avenue Entrance with Henry Hudson Half Moon Historical Marker Hudson Tubes PATH Train Hudson & Manhattan RR © B Klapouchy 2002 CLICK to enlarge pleasant building backing into a parking garage. Entering the station one passes the historical marker commemorating Henry Hudson's landing in the Half Moon. in front of the station on the median of Washington Boulevard stands the newly refurbished red brick airshaft for the station. The surrounding area of office buildings, apartment houses, hotels, restaurants with a river and skyline view, ferry terminals, shopping centers is still under major construction. Youtube displays a clip of Pavonia Station with a train entering the station, unloading, loading and departing [click here].

Pavonia is one of the first stations to have the new "PATHVision" installed: a television Pavonia PATHVision © B Klapouchy 2002 Hudson Tubes / PATH Trains / H&M RRdisplay giving general information about operations, delays, announcements, etc. but, most helpfully, also updates on the trains entering the station. Not only can you see when the next train to any of the destinations served will arrive at Pavonia [or whichever station you happen to be at] but you also learn where the train is now, e.g. is pulling into Grove Street. A drawback is that the announcement display is not non-stop but is interrupted by commercial announcements.

Although Journal Square station developed into the de facto heart of the Tubes, in the original planning it was Exchange Place station which had a special status. When the Tubes were being designed, Journal Square (then still called Summit Avenue) was relatively insignificant commercially and  the business heart of Jersey City centered on Exchange Place. But still more decisive for the attention paid to the Exchange Place Station was the existence of the Jersey City Pennsylvania Station

Pennsylvania Station Jersey City; Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RRThis station, opened July 19, 1909, was located at Exchange Place and was the main station of the Pennsylvania Railroad for New York City. Although the PRR believed that the opening of the New York Pennsylvania Station (which occurred just after the opening of the Tubes) would take over all or almost all of the long distance passengers, the railroad still expected a large stream of commuter and local passenger traffic into the Jersey City Pennsylvania Station. 

[In fact, the Jersey City Exchange Place <> Downtoen Manhattan cutaway Hudson Tibes PATH trains H&M RRstation was in operation until the beginning of the 1960s but with a very low passenger count at the end. On November 17, 1961 the Jersey City Terminal was abandoned after 127 years and PRR passenger trains made their last runs between Jersey City and Newark The last service was seven eastbound and six westbound trains; last departure is 5:05, The Broker, to Bay Head Jct.]

 Three elevators, extremely large and fast for the time of construction, connected the tube station with the street and with the Pennsylvania Railroad Terminal. 

PRR Terminal at Exchange Place Jersey City Montgomery Street SideFor these reasons the H&M planned an expansive layout for Exchange Place station, a layout which soon showed itself unnecessary because the importance of the Jersey City Pennsylvania Station sank much more quickly than had been expected and because the economic life of Jersey City moved westwards, away from the river and Exchange Place to Journal Square. Comparing the c 1900 image of the Montgomery Street side  of the Pennsylvania Railroad terminal, one is looking eastwards; the brick and cream hotel in the lower image [looking westwards] is the Exchange Place PRR Terminal with Colgate's extension of where the terminal had been. The clickable postcard view is from the river and is looking almost exactly to the site where the large picture below of the east head house is located. The Colgate Clock is now at ground level.

Contemporary accounts report Exchange Place station as being  Map showing Hudson Tubes connecting to Central Railroad of NJ Terminal on Johnson Avenue Jersey City: PATH trains / Hudson Tubes / H&M RRblasted out of solid rock 85 feet below street level. The station was almost 1,000 feet long, 150' wide and was apparently directly under the PRR station. Its walls and roof were finished with concrete. 

 The station was originally designed for 4, if not 5, tracks two of which were to be for through trains to Manhattan, two for local trains terminating at the PRR Station. Initial plans called for Exchange Place being  the H&M's branch off point to the Central Railroad of New Jersey terminal on Johnson Avenue. [Click the image to see the planned route full size.]

It was assumed that the majority of passenger traffic would be entering the H&M station from the PRR station, not from the street. Consequently of the six elevator entrances at the station  two lead from the PRR station to the street, while four elevators were to run between the PRR's platforms and the H&M Exchange Place platforms. [Two of the four elevators to the H&M platforms were replaced by escalators in the PATH period.]

Exchange Place Hudson Tubes PATH trains Hudson & Manhattan RR © 2003 www.hudsoncity.netThe Exchange Place station is directly at the river bank approximately 84 feet below ground. The enlargeable image to the left sows both head houses, each of which has an entrance to the station. The recently constructed dark red and cream brick east entry building [closer to the viewer] has a strong stylistic relationship to the Pavonia airshaft, with its curved corners. One enters the station through this entry via a triple bank of 88 foot escalators flanked by two stairways.

On the opposite side of the square in the cream colored base of the skyscraper is the second [west] head house entryway to the station, the one using elevator access. In the second image "on land", the rebuilt head house with the escalator entrance on the site of the old Pennsylvania Railroad Terminal entrance is to the left; to the right across the square [on the side of the building where the Katyn Memorial is located] is the Exchange Place both head houses r 20023PA Photo PATH Trains / Hudson Tubes / H&M RR © 2003 www.hudsoncity.netentrance to the west head house with the elevator entrance. [More on these two entrances below.]

The two tube tunnels coming from lower Manhattan begin to spread apart from one another, so that the station is almost 150 feet wide. This is in very sharp contrast to the other, narrow, underground stations.

There are two tracks whose platforms are connected to one another through relatively long pedestrian tunnels. The [west] tunnel seen below is the narrower of the two passenger cross tunnels and it's exits  lead to the Exchange Place west cross tunnel to elevator entrances PATH trains / Hudson Tubes / Hudson & Manhattan RR © 2003 www.hudsoncity.netelevator exit in the west head house. Overall, Exchange Place gives the general  impression of a Tube station in London. 

Reconstruction after the PA takeover resulted in the new street entrance with escalators that is located approximately where the original exit to the Pennsylvania Railroad Terminal had been. That exit had been shut down before the PA takeover and the elevator was replaced by an escalator. Here is the street level turnstile entrance in the east head house as well as the rather garishly neon-lit escalator.  In the other [west] entry the  original elevators were Exchange Place east head house entrance PATH trains / Hudson Tubes / Hudson & Manhattan RR © 2003 www.hudsoncity.netreplaced by the current two 88 foot rise elevators in the original shafts.

Exchange Place escalator entrance in east head house PATH trains / Hudson Tubes / H&M RR © 2003 www.hudsoncity.netThe two tracks that are in service now were to be the express tracks or through tracks for lower Manhattan.

Only one of the three additional tracks that had been planned to terminate in the station and which were designed for the suburban traffic from/to the Jersey City Pennsylvania Station was completed. This stub, sometimes called the "Penn Pocket" did not serve the original function of being a connection for service terminating in Jersey City but was used for switching. 

Before the Islamic terrorist attacks on America the platforms could handle seven car trains which came from Hoboken. The eight car JSQ-Newark trains did not open the doors of the front car. The enlargeable diagram to the left is from the Terry Kennedy collection and shows the complexity of the Exchange Place construction 2002 platform Hudson Tubes PATH trains layout. After the terrorist attacks on New York, Exchange Place itself was undamaged but was impractical to access because of the lack of a track set-up to have the trains change direction. Discussions were held on the feasibility of re-using the original trackage for turning trains until a new World Trade Center terminal is constructed. Basically, the station was made closer in function to the way it had been designed at its opening.

Exchange Place west end rebuilding 2002 Hudson Tubes PATH trainsSuch re-building got underway, in fact, by May 2002. The view above of the  Exchange Place platform during the construction appears to be "normal"; major activity, however, is going on at the west end of the station where the "pocket" track was located and where the lines branch off to Grove Street [westwards] and Pavonia [northwards].  Compare the enlargeable Eschange Place view to rebuilt Penn Pocket PATH trains / Hudson Tubes / H&M RR © 2003 hudsoncity.netconstruction picture to the same site on re-opening day.

At the east end of the station where there was severe water damage between Exchange Place and the World Trade Center site from broken water mains and the fire fighting efforts a major refurbishment of the trackage and electrical equipment and signals was completed. It is said that all that remained of the original downtown tunnels under the North River was the external structure and that everything else had been replaced and modernized.  

Exchange Place as terminal looking to WTC PATH trains / Hudson Tubes / H&M RR © 2003 Additionally, the station's platforms were lengthened so they can handle 10-car trains instead of the former limit of 7/8-car trains.  This view shows the status looking eastwards to the World Trade Center on June 29, 2003  when Exchange Place was functioning as a terminal.

Exchange Place Erneuerung Hudson Tubes PATH Trains H&M RRThe Port Authority colored sketch shows the changes to the trackage at Exchange Place that allows the station to be used now as a  terminal until the World Trade Center station is re-opened. Click the small image to see the plans full size. The enlargeable black and white trackage graphic is from New York

The remodeled Exchange Place Station re-opened to traffic on June 29, 2003 as a combined through and terminal station. The through function resumed on November 23,2003 when the temporary World Trade Center Station went into service and the routes returned to normal.

Every year there is less and less remaining from the Hudson & Hudson & Manhattan RR manhole cover on the north platform of Exchange Place Hudson Tubes PATH trains H&M RR © 2003 B KlapouchyManhattan RR days. Still at Exchange Place, even after the major rebuilding caused by the Islamic terrorist attacks on America, there is this H&M manhole cover on the north platform. Click the smaller image to the left to see details.

Until its destruction in the Islamic terrorist attack on New York, the PATH World Trade Center ("WTC") station replaced the Tubes' Hudson Terminal (which was often referred to as Cortlandt Street and which went into service July 19, 1909). Hudson Hudson Terminal, later replaced by the World Trade Center New York; Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RRTerminal straddled Dey Street and was bounded on the north by Fulton Street, on the south by Cortlandt Street, on the east by Church Street and on the west by Greenwich Street. As noted earlier, in 1909 the H&M erected over the station Hudson Terminal, the world's then largest office complex which consisted of twoHudson Terminal in context: St  Paul's to the right [north]; Singer Building to the left [south]; Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RR skyscrapers.

At the time of its erection Hudson Terminal was viewed as the actual downtown Manhattan terminal of the six railroads that terminated on the New Jersey shore: Lehigh Valley, New York, Susquehanna and Western, West Shore Railroad, Erie Railroad, Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, Pennsylvania. It also was viewed as the terminal for the railroads to the west and the Pacific., even though the connections was made by the H&M. [Even this timetable from the late 1950s still shows the Tubes as part of the U.S. Class I railroad system.]

Hudson Terminal occupied a double block bounded by Church, Fulton, Cortlandt and Greenwich Streets. Dey Street ran between the two buildings and above it ran a pedestrian bridge connecting the buildings half way up.

Just as "the bathtub" was unusual engineering in constructing the WTC, Hudson Terminal's foundation was a coffer dam that was five Hudson Terminal logo: PATH trains / Hudson Tubes / H&M RRtimes larger than any ever constructed  before: 400' x 175' x 75'. The tunnels to and from New Jersey were constructed in additional coffer dams.

The buildings were in Italian Renaissance style, but on a grand scale: 22 stories and 263 feet high, reaching 75 feet below ground and built on concrete and rock with a total of 18,500,000 cubic feet and were designed by Clinton & Russell, the architectural firm of the contemporaneous Hotel Astor. The materials were granite and limestone up to the fourth floor and then brick and terra cotta the rest of the height. All the public area was floored in marble. The cost of the buildings in contemporary dollars was $8,ooo,ooo [or over $150,000,000 in 2003 dollars.]

Each of the [almost] twin buildings had 39 elevators. Just as in the WTC which replaced them, the buildings' elevators were divided between express and local. In Hudson Terminal each building had 22 express elevators. There were both stairways and elevators from the concourse level to the platforms although the elevators were limited in number and appear to have been used mostly for baggage.

The Tubes and Hudson Terminal were constructed in an age of civic pride. Ordinary people felt a close kinship with their city and were also impressed by statistics. The H&M's public relations office did not disappoint them.

It was announced that the Hudson Terminal's plumbing totaled 16 miles, or the length of Broadway, "the longest street in the world". In describing the tile that was used in the buildings, reports noted that the 1,300,000 square feet of tile would form a 1 foot square column that "would tower 246 miles high. Should it then topple over and fall in a direct line with Syracuse New York, it would cut a channel through that city that would startle its natives."

In the Cortlandt Building each floor had 26,000 square feet, while in the [north] Fulton Building each floor had 18,000 square feet. The buildings' official entrance is on Church Street [just as the temporary WTC entrance is,- maybe from different side of street] and each building had on its roof a restaurant, prefiguring Windows on the World in the WTC: on top of the Cortlandt building was The Railroad Club [reflecting Hudson Terminal's function as a major railroad terminal], while the Fulton building was topped by The Machinery Club.

As can be seen in the expandable drawing above, above the concourse on the street level was The Arcade, a glass enclosed passenger promenade with stores. Underneath the two towers was the station itself, Hudson Terminal, with entrances from Cortlandt, Dey and Fulton Streets.

Two of the entrances, at first called "runways", were via 40 foot wide ramps and shallower than usual stairs to speed the flow of passengers between the street and the concourse. The total space under the two buildings and the intervening Passenger subway from Hudson Terminal to IRT subwayDey Street was taken up by the passenger concourse. The concourse offered ticket offices for the Class I railroads as well as a multitude of stores and services, from barbers, to florists, to restaurants, to newsstands, etc. [Click the sketch below to see the full view.] A pedestrian "subway" connected to the new IRT subway.

Hudson Terminal concourse from "Passenger Terminals and Trains"  John Albert Droege 1916Stairways led from the concourse down to track level where the two tunnels coming from Exchange Place spread out into a five track loop with six platforms; two additional tunnels were planned from Hudson Terminal to the Erie Railroad Station in Jersey City but Hudson Terminal in the 1950s PATH trains / Hudson Tubes / H&M RR only very minor work was ever done on them. 

This photo from the 1950s shows one very small section of the commercial concourse at Hudson Terminal.

As also the case with Erie, 33rd Street and Hoboken, the platforms at Hudson Terminal were designed to separate passengers who boarding  and alighting from the same train. In the case of Hudson Terminal this crowd control was particularly necessary, with over 30 million passengers using the station in the 12 months ending on March 31, 1914; these passengers had been brought in and out of the station on the 858 trains operating workdays [then, Monday through Saturday]. [See Gallery 2 Stations for more information on Hudson Terminal.]

On January 18, 1964 the Port Authority published the plan for a World Trade Center on the site of Hudson Terminal; it's kernal was to consist of two 110-story office buildings, which at 1,350 feet, ironically the highest offfice buildings in the world at the time of their erection, just as Hudson Terminal had been ats its completion. By September 1968 Port Authority had completed demolition of 50 Church Street[ i.e. the north building of Hudson Terminal]. By October 1968 the excavation for the World Trade Center west of Greenwich Street had reached a level that it exposed the westbound PATH tube, which was then supported on a cradle in the open air 18 feet above the World Trade Center's floor slab; the excavation and support of the eastbound tube began in December 1968. On December 29, 1968 the Port Authority announced it was building a new PATH station under the World Trade Center with the capacity for 10-car trains, vs. the 6 cars at Hudson Terminal [which wound up not being demolished].

Below the WTC the original five track Hudson Terminal station with its five-tracked loop was replacedHudson Terminal World Trade Center trackage comparisons; Hudson Tubes; Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RR with a new five-tracked loop with less severe curves and was renamed WTC. At the time of its opening, WTC was said to be the first fully air-conditioned subway station in the world. The World Trade Center carried on  Hudson Terminal's plan of a concourse with stores and services above the train platforms but on a much grander scale.

Here the Tubes/PATH tracks are approximately 80 feet below the street and on the lowest level of a muti-level subway interchange, with  the IND, BMT and IRT trackage lying above them. The next level above the PATH tracks was the entry level with fare card machines and station personnel. From here a bank of eight extremely long escalators rose up to the shopping concourse, as large as many suburban malls, that lay under the World Trade Center complex. The station was the single busiest one of the system with up to 70,000 passengers a day. Several months before the terrorist attacks plans had been announced for a major renovation of the WTC station.

There had been proposals to use the [surprisingly still extant] Hudson Terminal turning loop for downtown service until the World Trade Center station was rebuilt. Hudson Temporary WTC station from side Hudson Tubes PATH Trains H&M RR © B. Klapouchy 2003Terminal closed and the WTC station opened on July 6, 1971.

After the Islamic terrorist attacks the downtown station was buried by demolition and clearance activities and out of service for over two years. On November 23, 2003 a temporary station was opened on the site of the first WTC station [not on the site of the Hudson Terminal loop] and is designed to function only until the permanent station is completed as part of the building of a downtown transportation hub.

The same but different. Essentially the station is the same as when it was the WTC station: four levels with a long escalator ride between the concourse [2nd ] level and the mezzanine [3rd] level. There are five tracks served by three platforms in the same layout as in the WTC station. All is where it was before or else there is space left for it.

What is different from the destroyed station is that the temporary station is basically a shell on the edge of the The spartan design of the temporary WTC station is softened only by murals of NYC and NJ  on the walls: Hudson Tubes / PATH Trains / H&M RR © B. Klapouchy 2003construction site of the World Trade Center. it covers essentially the exact same area as before: the access to the New York subways, entrances to PATH's tracks, space for stores are all in the same positions as had existed before. All appears now as a plain shell which is being worked on. Click here for a Youtube video overview of the temorary WTC Station.

At the present time the trains coming from Jersey City and Hoboken travel under the river as in the past; but because of the construction they now emerge into the daylight as they enter the station loop which now PATH's Quickcard and NYC's Metrocard are both accepted at the new WTC station: Hudson Tubes PATH trains H&M RR © B. Klapouchy 2003 has natural light on three sides, although it is 80 feet below ground level. A unique experience that will not last long.

The station is the first one to accept both PATH's  Quickcard as well as the New York City subway system's Metrocard.

Additional pictures of the temporary station are in the Tubes Station Gallery and an eyewitness description of the station on it's opening day is here.

Hoboken Tube Station at opening; Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RRBoth Hoboken (opened February 25, 1908) and 33rd Street (opened in its original form November 10, 1910) are stub terminal stations: Hoboken  with three tracks, two center platforms and one side platform; 33rd Street with three tracks, two center platforms and two side platforms.

Since 33rd Street now lies in a subwayHoboken 2001; Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RR complex that was built several decades after the opening of the Tubes, its original vaulted arch construction has disappeared; Expand image and then click 5. Tube Stations to return  in Hoboken, on the other hand, this construction is still very obvious.  Also note the picture on the Gallery 2: Stations page.

33rd Street Station concourse entrance;  Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RR The Tubes' original 33rd Street station was actually at 33rd Street [and Sixth Avenue] and was constructed after the Sixth Avenue elevated was in place but before any subway was in the area. The BRT/BMT Herald Square station was constructed shortly after the Tubes' station in close proximity. When the Sixth Avenue IND was built [while the Sixth Avenue elevated was still in service], the H&M station had to be shifted southwards away from 33rd Street and sandwiched between the IND Sixth Avenue Line below it and the Broadway BMT above it, the BMT at approximately 20 feet below the surface, the Tubes at approximately 30 feet below the surface, the IND at 40 feet below the surface. This shifting also catches one's eye with the noticeable drop in elevation as you enter the Tubes platform from the BMT/IND concourse. Another view of the "sandwich" situation of this station is on the Gallery 2: Stations page as a schematic. The "new"33rd Street station was opened in 1938

Two underground stations, 28th Street (opened November 10, 1910) and 19th Street, (opened February 25, 1908)  are no longer in operation. In spite of its H&M 19th street station, c.1906; Click to enlarge, use your browser's BACK button to return to narrative Hudson Tubes / PATH / H&M RR name 33rd Street station is not located at 33rd Street but between 30th and 32nd Streets. The  construction of the Sixth Avenue subway caused the original 33rd Street station to be relocated further to the south. As a result, the 33rd Street station was now so close to the 28th Street Station that 28th Street was closed around 1938. 

If you're quick of eye, it still is possible to catch a glimpse of 19th Street Station (opened February 25, 1908) which was closed on August 1, 1954; it's easiest, if one looks to the right after leaving 14th Street while heading towards 33rd Street.  Expand image and then click 5. Tube Stations to return     

[Additional photos and comments on the stations are in the Stations Picture Gallery 2 ]

© b. Klapouchy 1987-2008

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Station Opened Closed
Hoboken February 25, 1908
Christopher February25, 1908
Ninth February 25, 1908
Fourteenth February 25, 1908
Nineteenth February 25,1908 August 1, 1954
Twenty-Third June 15, 1908 
Exchange Place July 19, 1909 [re-opened June 29, 2003]
Hudson Terminal July 19, 1909 July 6, 1971 
Erie (Pavonia) August 2, 1909
Grove-Henderson September 6, 1910 major renovation finished June 22, 1950 
Twenty-Eighth November 10, 1910 1938
Thirty-Third (original) November 10, 1910 1938
Manhattan Transfer October 1, 1911 June 21, 1937
Harrison (original) November 26, 1911 June 21, 1937
Newark (Park Place) November 26, 1911 June 21, 1937
Journal Square (originally  Summit Avenue) April 14, 1912
Harrison (new) June 21, 1937
Newark (Penn Station) June 21, 1937
Thirty-Third (actually 32nd) 1938
World Trade Center July 6, 1971 September 11, 2001
Temporary World Trade Center November 23, 2003
Some of this information from Bob Scheurle
This page was last updated on  December-20-2007  using NotePad Lite.